What are supernumerary teeth, syndrome, causes, extraction
Supernumerary teeth or hypodontia are dental anomalies where children can be born with extra teeth. That is, humans may have a greater number of teeth than anticipated. This condition is associated with genetic syndromes and must be evaluated by a specialist so that you can have a good diagnosis.
Extra or supernumerary teeth often grow close to or behind the usual primary or permanent teeth. Below is all your information about this dental condition, its causes, and treatments.
What is a supernumerary tooth?
Extra teeth are called hypodontia or supernumerary teeth. Humans have 20 milk teeth, known as primary or temporary, and as an adult, they have 32 counting wisdom teeth.
A person with one or more teeth besides the standard set is considered extra or supernumerary. Hypodontia causes extra teeth to grow in the mouth and can come out in any direction.
It is important to remember that a person can have a supernumerary tooth without having more than 20 deciduous or 32 permanent teeth. A person can simultaneously have hypodontia (missing teeth) and hyperdontia (extra teeth).
This is because the extra teeth will never replace the normal teeth. To have a proper evaluation, you must see a licensed dentist with experience managing supernumerary teeth.
Cause of supernumerary teeth
There are different theories regarding the cause of hyperdontia or extra teeth to date, some researchers claim that certain hereditary and genetic conditions cause supernumerary teeth syndrome.
Some of the common supernumerary teeth causes are:
• Down's Syndrome
• Cleft lip/palate
• Cleidocranial dysplasia. Abnormal development of the skull and clavicle.
• Gardner syndrome. A genetic disorder that causes growths on the skull and colon growths and causes cysts on the skin.
On the other hand, some researchers believe that environmental factors may contribute to the presence of supernumerary teeth.
What are supernumerary teeth like?
Two types of supernumerary teeth are supplementary and rudimentary. Additional or supernumerary teeth that usually have a similar shape to normal teeth are called supplementary.
While extra teeth with an abnormal shape or size are called rudimentary, most hyperdontia usually have abnormal teeth, smaller or conical shapes.
Addition teeth usually appear near other teeth, but they can also appear on a child's roof of the mouth. These teeth can erupt in any direction, but mesiodens is the most common type of supernumerary tooth.
The mesiodens is a supernumerary tooth that emerges between the two upper central teeth. Sometimes dental X-rays are required to see extra or supernumerary teeth since some do not erupt in the mouth.
How common are supernumerary teeth in children?
According to the researchers, 1% and 3.8% of the population have hypodontia. There is a higher percentage of supernumerary teeth in children with cleft lip, palate, and certain syndromes.
Recent studies indicate that 28% of patients with a cleft palate or cleft lip had hypodontia. While 21% of patients with Gardner syndrome and 35% with cleidocranial dysplasia had extra or supernumerary teeth.
Although multiple extra teeth can appear in the same individual, most patients with hyperdontia only have one extra tooth. This means children with this dental abnormality usually only have one supernumerary tooth.
Research conducted in Australia found that 68.6% of people with hyperdontia only had one supernumerary tooth, while 11.1% had three or more. The appearance of multiple additional teeth in the mouth is usually associated with certain syndromes, such as cleidocranial dysplasia.
Some patients with cleidocranial dysplasia may develop up to 30 additional or supernumerary teeth.
Can hypodontia cause problems in children?
In general, hyperdontia does not generate any adverse effects in children. On certain occasions, the other teeth can generate one or several clinical complications, such as:
• Failure of the eruption
Hyperdontia can cause adjacent teeth to erupt through the gums.
• Overcrowding or displacement
Hypodontia can cause teeth to crowd and adjacent teeth to move out of their proper alignment. When the teeth are crowded, cleaning is more difficult, and cavities may occur, affecting your smile.
• Formation of dentigerous cysts
Cysts may form around impacted supernumerary teeth. These cysts are fluid-filled sacs that can infect or cause nearby teeth to lose proper alignment.
• Interference with alveolar bone graft
Supernumerary teeth can affect alveolar bone grafting, surgery to reconstruct or repair cleft palate and lip.
Is it necessary to extract supernumerary teeth?
When hypodontia causes clinical complications, pediatric dentists will recommend supernumerary teeth removal. The specialist will be in charge of evaluating your case and determining the appropriate moment for the extraction.
In addition, you must study whether the tooth is supplementary or rudimentary, its location, and the effects of such extraction on the tissues and teeth.
If the dentist determines that you must wait a while before removing the extra tooth, you should take your child for regular checkups. This way, she can monitor the other teeth' development and control the extra tooth.
Therefore, the best supernumerary teeth treatment will only be found through a licensed pediatric dentist with the necessary experience. They are specialized doctors trained to understand the growth of children's teeth and jaws.
The supernumerary tooth removal cost will depend on each case. Therefore, you should go to the consultation for a detailed evaluation of your child's mouth.
Extraction of supernumerary teeth in your city
To extract supernumerary wisdom teeth removal, you should go to a certified dentist in your city with experience in this type of dental anomaly. The trained dentist will give her the appropriate treatment depending on her condition and will determine how hyperdontia and extraction may affect her oral health.
You must take into account that supernumerary teeth after wisdom tooth removal can come out. It would help if you went to the dentist for periodic evaluations.
Supernumerary tooth removal recovery is equal to that of a normal tooth. You have to follow the pediatric dentist's instructions to avoid any complications.
The supernumerary teeth are other teeth that appear in the mouth and are added to the set of normal teeth. It is a dental abnormality where children have one or more extra teeth and usually do not have the appearance of a normal tooth.
If you wish to treat extra or supernumerary teeth, remember to seek the help of a certified pediatric dentist in your city. You will have the appropriate treatment, and the final results will be extraordinary.